The geographical diversity of HIV-IIDs in Chad has been previously documented with a single total sample from patients attending the local general hospital in N’Djamena, the capital city of Cameroon. The sample tested positive in a panel of two independent laboratories for HIV-IIDs, with the second laboratory ruling out an HIV-IID from the first laboratory.
The genetic diversity of the HIV-IIDs in Cameroon was studied by sequencing the full genetic sequences of the strains identified. The sequences were compared to a panel of strains isolated from sources in Africa and Asia. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed that most HIV-IIDs have a close genetic relationship to HIV-3.
Most of the seven patients were diagnosed with acute HIV disease, with three of them having high-grade HIV RNA levels in blood. Two of them had recently acquired HIV through contact with infected blood donors.
A PCR-based assay was used to confirm the presence of HIV RNA in blood samples. Genital warts, as well as herpes simplex I and II and hepatitis B virus (HBV) were detected in one patient. The clinical course of the HIV-IIDs in these patients was characterized and the factors responsible for HIV progression were assessed.
For future research, HIV patients who are at risk of acquiring HIV should undergo routine HIV DNA testing. This would enable researchers to track the HIV viral load in patients who may be at high risk of developing HIV infection. or who have recently contracted HIV.
For the future of this field, the WHO recommends that the use of CRF designations should be improved and standardized across all regions and countries of the world. As a WHO guideline, only the first four HIV virus subtypes should be recognized as subtypes.
The WHO also recommended that the use of specific HIV DNA typing markers should be followed by further studies in all countries to improve the accuracy and quality of the results generated from PCR-based assays and genotyping technologies. These markers should enable more efficient identification of the HIV subtypes.
In order to facilitate these efforts, a new HIV DNA typing system is now available for use by laboratories across the globe. It combines the best of the PCR-based assays and genotyping technologies. It is also cost effective, as it uses a single panel of HIV DNA markers to accurately distinguish the HIV subtypes. Using the same panels, the tests can also distinguish and classify the other HIV-IIDs.
This new universal HIV DNA Typing System is called the HIV Genotyping Consortium. The system is a collaborative effort between the World Health Organization (WHO), Global Alliance for HIV Vaccines and Immunology (GAVI) and the Genomics Institute of India (GIH).
Through the Consortium, the HIV DNA typing laboratories of different countries can now easily share their HIV DNA samples, which will enable researchers to make comparisons between HIV subtypes. without the need to go through all the steps involved in laboratory diagnosis.
As part of the collaboration, a consensus set of criteria should be established to ensure the reliability and reproducibility of results from CRF-based assays and genotyping technologies. This includes the use of an appropriate number of samples from each individual in the sequence. Proper analysis of PCR products should include both genotype and sequence, and data reporting should be done in an easy and efficient manner. The system should also include an easy to interpret graphical representation of the data obtained, allowing users to analyze the genotypes and sequence by themselves or with a partner.
Furthermore, the new diagnostic tools should be able to provide a global database to allow for the exchange of data between laboratories, while maintaining confidentiality. The system must also be designed so that it is scalable and flexible enough to accommodate future changes in the type of specimens that will be analyzed.